Archive for the ‘Denmark’ Category

The Oresund connecting Denmark and Sweden

January 27, 2019

THE ORESUND (ORESUND BRIDGE) IS A DOUBLE-TRACK RAILWAY AND DUAL CARRIAGEWAY BRIDGE-TUNNEL ACROSS THE ORESUND STRAIT BETWEEN SWEDEN AND DENMARK

The Oresund is a 15.9 km (9.9 miles) direct link between Denmark and Sweden.  It consists of three different parts: a cable-stayed bridge at 7.8 km (4.8 miles),  an immersed tube tunnel at 4.1 km (2.6 miles) and an artificial island of 4 km (2.5 miles).

The project connects the Danish capital of Copenhagen to the Swedish city of Malmo.  Two railway tracks run on the lower level (Oresund Railway Line) and four motorway lanes run on the upper level (E20).

Construction began in 1995 and concluded in August 1999.  Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden met midway across the bridge-tunnel on Aug. 14, 1999 to celebrate the completion. The official inauguration took place on July 1, 2000, with Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden as guests of honor.  The crossing was opened for public traffic later that day.

The Oresund features two 204 meter (669 feet) high pylons supporting the 490 meter (1,608 feet) bridge spanning across the Flintrannen navigation channel of the Oresund Strait.  (The Baltic Sea converges with the North Sea at the Oresund Strait.)

“The tunnel is the longest immersed concrete tunnel in the world.  With its main span of 490m, the bridge ranks as joint 9th among cable-stayed bridges around the world.  However, it includes the longest free span of any cable-stay bridge carrying both road and rail traffic.  It is the longest double-deck bridge for road and rail traffic, and it has by far the highest freestanding pylons in the world.”  Source: Jorgen Nissen and Klaus -Hansen, The Oresund Bridge Completion (Arup J. 2000).  The tunnel is known as the Drogden Tunnel.

Most of the bridge structures — the bridge piers and bridge spans — were built on land and then towed out to the site by a large floating crane.  The pylons were cast in situ.

During construction, there was some delay due to 16 unexploded bombs from World War II found on the sea bed where dredging was to take place.  But the project was still completed three months ahead of schedule.

The project owner is Orsundskonsortiet, a joint venture between the governments of Denmark and Sweden.  “In the end, the Oresund Bridge and the adjacent structures reached a record DKK 30 billion (around $5.7 billion).”  Source: Bogdan Popa, Oresund Bridge — Half Tunnel, Half Bridge and a Bonus Artificial Island (Autoevolution — Jan. 8, 2012).

The Oresund was designed by the Danish engineering firm COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS.  The main architect was Georg K. S. Rotne.  It was designed to have an operational lifespan of 100 years.

PART OF THE TUNNEL OF THE ORESUND

 

Advertisements